Junkers Ju 87 G-2 Stuka
- Crew: 2
- Length: 37.73 ft (11.5 m)
- Width: 45.28 ft (13.8 m)
- Height: 12.80 ft (3.9 m)
- Weight (Empty): 8,598 lb (3,900 kg)
- Weight (MTOW): 14,551 lb (6,600 kg)
- Power: 1 x Jumo 211J-1 inverted-V piston engine developing 1,400 horsepower.
- Speed: 255 mph (410 kph; 221 kts)
- Ceiling: 23,917 feet (7,290 m; 4.53 miles)
- Range: 954 miles (1,535 km; 829 nm)
- 2 x 7.92mm forward-facing machine guns
- 2 x 7.92mm machine guns in rear-facing cockpit
Maximum external bombload of up to 3,968 lb including conventional drop bombs under fuselage and wing hardpoints, 2 x 37mm underwing anti-tank cannons and anti-personnel munitions.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, “dive bomber”) was a two-man (pilot and rear gunner) German ground-attack aircraft. Designed by Hermann Pohlmann, the Stuka first flew in 1935 and made its combat debut in 1936 as part of the Luftwaffe’s Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War.
The Junkers Ju 87 was easily recognizable by its inverted gull wings, fixed spatted undercarriage and its infamous Jericho-Trompete (“Jericho Trumpet“) wailing siren, becoming the propaganda symbol of German air power and the blitzkrieg victories of 1939–1942. The Stuka’s design included several innovative features, including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both wings to ensure that the aircraft recovered from its attack dive even if the pilot blacked out from the high acceleration.
Although sturdy, accurate, and very effective, the Junkers Ju 87 was vulnerable to modern fighter aircraft, like many other dive bombers of the war. Its flaws became apparent during the Battle of Britain; poor manoeuvrability and a lack of both speed and defensive armament meant that the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka required heavy fighter escort to operate effectively.
The Stuka operated with further success after the Battle of Britain, and its potency as a precision ground-attack aircraft became valuable to German forces in the Balkans Campaign, the African and Mediterranean Theaters and the early stages of the Eastern Front campaigns where Allied fighter resistance was disorganised and in short supply.
Once the Luftwaffe had lost air superiority on all fronts, the Junkers Ju 87 once again became an easy target for enemy fighter aircraft. In spite of this, because there was no better replacement, the type continued to be produced until 1944. By the end of the conflict, the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka had been largely replaced by ground-attack versions of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, but was still in use until the last days of the war. An estimated 6,500 Ju 87s of all versions were built between 1936 and August 1944.